Recent diabetes research
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Int J Mol Sci. Published online Jan 8. Copyright © by the authors.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Royal jelly RJ is a yellowish-white and acidic secretion of hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees used to feed young worker larvae during the first three days and the entire life of queen bees. RJ is one of the most appreciated and valued natural product which has been mainly used in traditional medicines, health foods, and cosmetics for a long time in different parts of the world.
It is also the most studied bee product, aimed at unravelling its bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, immunomodulatory, and general tonic action against laboratory animals, microbial organisms, farm animals, recent diabetes research clinical trials.
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Here, we highlight the recent research advances on the main bioactive compounds of RJ, such as proteins, peptides, fatty acids, and phenolics, for a comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry, biological, and pharmaceutical recent diabetes research to human health promotion and life benefits.
This is potentially important to gain novel insight recent diabetes research the biological and pharmaceutical properties of RJ. Keywords: royal jelly, bioactive compounds, functional properties, proteins, fatty acids, phenolics 1. RJ is an active research domain because it is essential for larval development and queen reproduction in honeybee colonies through the metabolism of sugars, lipids, and proteins [ 78 ].
Whereas type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune response directed against the insulin-producing beta islet cells of the pancreas, type 2 diabetes is caused by exhausting those beta cells through excessive energy consumption. Essentially, if one eats too much and has high blood glucose levels, the beta cells have to produce more and more insulin to keep up, eventually leading to accumulation of damage and death.
Thereby, the larger body size, longer lifespan, and fertility of queens compared to worker bees are potentially correlated to the special diet of RJ [ 9 ]. RJ has been produced in large scale for commercial purposes to date, and its market value is significantly higher than other bee products, such as honey or pollen, thus, it is a major income source for beekeepers [ 410 ].
Beekeepers have made great recent diabetes research to develop the technique to improve RJ production and to select for high-producing strains of honeybees. For instance, the increase in the production of RJ in China over the last 40 years has been achieved by the development of genetic selection of high RJ-producing bees RJBs from Italian bees [ 111213 ], and the development and implementation of production techniques to recent diabetes research and optimize RJ production [ 141516 ].
The health-promoting benefits and pharmaceutical properties of RJ from animal models to humans have been widely investigated. RJ is a nutritional modification of honey and bee bread Figure 1and it is commercially available on a large scale as health food and cosmetics in Asia, especially in China and Japan [ 910 ].
This discovery could lead to a test that would help doctors identify patients at greatest risk and help them potentially avert the disease through interventions including diet and exercise. The research was led by Michael Wheeler, a professor of physiology at U of T's Faculty of Medicine, in collaboration with Hannes Röst, an assistant professor of molecular genetics and computer science at the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, Feihan Dai, a research scientist of physiology and Erica Gunderson, a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research in Northern California. Mi Recent diabetes research, a post-doctoral fellow in Wheeler's group performed much of the analyses. The identified metabolic signature can predict with over 85 per cent accuracy if a woman will develop type 2 diabetes T2Das described in a study published in the journal Plos Medicine.
To date, the importance of RJ has attracted attention around the world, which is evidenced by the growth in the number of publications and citations in the core collection of the Web of Science Figure 2. Recently, the origin and function of RJ, such as major royal jelly proteins MRJPs for the development of the larvae [ 21 ], antimicrobial properties [ 9 ], medicinal value [ 2022 ], proteins and peptides [ 23 ], the potential applications for cancer treatment [ 24 ], and health aging and longevity [ 25 ] have been reported.
To better understand the biochemistry, biological, and pharmaceutical response to health and life benefits of RJ, we update the knowledge from the research advances of the biological activities and pharmaceutical applications of RJ and its bioactive ingredients that are associated with farm animals, micro-organisms, laboratory animals, insects, and clinical trials in humans.
Here, our major focus is on the bioeffects of RJ, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, anti-aging, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hypertension, hepato-renal protective, neuroprotective, estrogenic, and fertility effects.
Recent diabetes research evidence is a potentially valuable resource for further studies of the health potential properties of RJ for both humans and honeybees.
Go to: References 1. Prediabetes: a high-risk state for diabetes development. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group The prevalence of retinopathy in impaired glucose tolerance and recent-onset diabetes in the diabetes prevention program. Diabet Med. Diabetes Care.