Nice guidelines diabetes 2021 pdf
Full size table Experimental design A To investigate the effect of DDW on metabolic changes occur in diabetes, diabetic and control rats were divided into two main groups: half of the animals were given DDW 25 ppm Dand the other half received normal tap water ppm Dboth provided ad libitum. To determine whether DDW exerts its effects, at least partially, by modifying the action of insulin, diabetic rats were further divided into subgroups according to insulin treatment.
The control rats did not receive insulin treatment.
We did not want to achieve euglycaemia by insulin treatment, but to prevent severe acute complications only. Therefore, two different doses of insulin Huminsulin Lilly Normal I. The insulin was administered subcutaneously in equal portions twice daily 8. Treatments started at the 2nd week after STZ injection and lasted for an additional 8 weeks.
Treatments started at the 2nd week after STZ injection and lasted for nice guidelines diabetes 2021 pdf weeks. Food intake, water consumption, and body weight were measured daily. Blood samples from the tail vein and 24 h urine samples were collected once a week. The plasma samples were obtained by centrifugation at ×g for 15 min at 4 °C.
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After measuring the volume, urine was centrifuged at × g for 10 min and the supernatant was used for analysis. Plasma glucose Plasma Glucose was determined spectrophotometrically using reagent kits from Reanal Finechemical Co.
Budapest, Hungary. The plates were analyzed by a Biorad microplate reader.
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Plasma fructosamine concentration Plasma fructosamine concentration was determined spectrophotometrically using the micro method developed by Oppel et al.
In brief, fructosamine reagent was prepared by dissolving 50 mg nice guidelines diabetes 2021 pdf tetrazolium NBT, from Sigma, Budapest, Hungary in Standard was prepared from bovine serum albumin as described previously in detail [ 23 ].
Twenty µl of plasma or an adequate volume of standard solution was pipetted into the wells of a well plate in three parallels, respectively. After the addition of µl reagent into each well, the plates were profoundly shaken and then incubated at 37 °C for 10 min. The initial absorbance was read at nm A1. Following a subsequent incubation for 10 min, the absorbance was read again at nm A2.
Fructosamine concentration Csample was calculated from Eq. In brief, 30 µl of blood samples collected without anticoagulants were hemolysated in µL deionised water. After further washing of the columns with washing buffer 10 mLµL of the hemolysate were transferred to the top of the columns and allowed to soak in.
Unbound hemoglobins were eluted by passing 8 mL of washing buffer through the column. The unbound fraction, containing most of the hemoglobin was diluted to 15 mL with washing buffer. The absorbance of each fraction was measured at nm and the amount of hemoglobin bound glycosylated was calculated as a percentage of the total.
Isolation of the membrane fraction of soleus muscle Isolation of the membrane fraction of soleus muscle was performed according to Villanueva-Peñacarrillo ML et al.
Táplálkozási tényezők[ szerkesztés ] A grafikonon mutatja, hogy és között az élelmiszerenergia-fogyasztás világszerte fokozatosan növekedett személyenként és naponta. Átlagos egy főre jutó energiafogyasztás a világon és között  Az egy főre jutó étkezési energiabevitel a különböző régiókban és országokban jelentősen eltérő, és az idő múlásával is jelentős mértékben változott. A szénhidrátoknak kritikus a felszívódási sebességük, a felszívódási sebességet a glikémiás index GI mutatja meg. A cukor előállítása során minden vitamin, ásványi só, nyomelem, enzim, telítetlen zsírsav, rostos anyag, valamint íz- és szaganyag eltűnik.
Briefly, soleus muscles from each rat hind limb were removed and trimmed of connective tissue, fat and nerves. The homogenate was centrifuged at ×g for a kezelés a központban a cukorbetegség min at 4 °C, and the pellet was discarded.
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The supernatant was then centrifuged at ×g for 60 min in a Beckman SW55 rotor. The pellet was resuspended in 0. The pellet was finally resuspended and homogenized in washing buffer, and the total membrane protein content was measured by the Bradford method.
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Western blot analyses The samples were prepared in 2 × Laemmli buffer containing mmol dithiothreitol and boiled nice guidelines diabetes 2021 pdf a water bath for 15 min.
The ODs of bands were determined by densitometry. All chemicals not mentioned otherwise were purchased from Sigma Budapest, Hungary.
Statistical analyses The results are presented as the mean ± SEM of n observations.